Covid 19 aka Coronavirus. Nowadays, we know this word as this disease has affected the whole World very severely. Today, it is the biggest virus, or we can say, the most prominent disease which destroys many lives across the World. The corona was first born in 1930 when founding in a hen, which affected the hen's breath system. And later, in 1940, this virus was also found in many other animals.
After this, in 1960, a person was found to have a cold. It was the first time found in a man. In the year 2019, we saw a monstrous form of it again in China. Later it went on to spread throughout the World. And even today, many countries of the World are fighting this epidemic.
What Is Coronavirus?
Scientifically, coronavirus is a group of RNA viruses that affect birds and mammals. In birds and humans, they infect the respiratory tract that can range from mild to lethal. Milder varieties in humans include some cases of the common cold, while more lethal varieties may contain SARS, MERS, and CORONAVIRUS. In cows and pigs, they cause diarrhoea, whereas, in mice, they cause hepatitis and encephalomyelitis. The coronavirus came from the Latin words corona, which means "crown" or "wreath".
Why it is Called Covid 19
We all know that coronavirus is also called covid 19 but have you ever thought about where this name came from?
In January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCOV. But the official names came on February 11 2020, by WHO as COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. Covid 19 where CO for corona, VI for the virus, D for disease and '19' means the year 2019, i.e. the year in which the disease occurred.
Symptoms of Covid 19
- Cold and cough
- Sore throat
- Body fatigue
- Breathing difficulty (most prominent)
- Muscle tightness
- Prolonged fatigue
Precautions of Covid 19
Coronavirus infection spreads very quickly and is therefore classified as a fatal disease. The cases of corona are increasing day by day throughout the World. WHO (World health organization has declared it an epidemic). Caution is the best way to avoid an outbreak. To prevent this pandemic, some people can take care of their feet personally and protect themselves like
1. Always wash your hands.
2. Do not touch your mouth again and again.
3. Walk or stay for a distance of 2 feet.
4. Do not go out of the house if it is not very necessary.
5. Do not go to public places such as malls, markets, etc.
6. Improve your immunity system, and that is why you eat healthy food as much as you do.
7. Do not shake hands with people.
8. Must apply a mask.
9. Avoid travelling by train, bus, etc.
10. Wash hands with soap for at least 20 seconds.
By following these precautions, you can protect yourself and your family from this deadly epidemic.
Covid 19 Vaccine
There was a time when no one had any vaccine or drugs for this coronavirus. Still, today we have different coronavirus vaccines invented by many medical experts, which people started receiving in December 2020. Still, researchers have been working to develop more effective coronavirus vaccines.
Although many vaccines have been developed, do you know which vaccines have been approved?
Now, various vaccines are available in different countries. In the US, the vaccines require the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. There are 3-phase vaccine tests to prove that they are effective and safe.
In the first stage or phase 1, vaccines are given to small groups of people. Later, in the second stage or phase 2, vaccines are given to the people who have characteristics such as age and physical health. In the last stage or 3 phase, vaccines are given to thousands of people.
Two vaccines trusted source get the approval from FDA for use in the US:-
- The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine - The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine developed in Germany received FDA approval as an Emergency Use Authority on December 11, 2020. In phase 3, this vaccine has been given to more than 43,000 people. And about half received a placebo, and half received 2-doses of the vaccine. Results showed that the vaccine was 95% effective in preventing Covid 19. There are some side effects of covid 19 vaccines Pfizer possible.
- The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine - The Moderna vaccine was developed in Cambridge, MA, launched in December 2018 in the US. This vaccine was approved for emergency use in the US. In phase 3 of the trial, the vaccine was given to 30,000 volunteers that received a vaccine or 2-doses of the vaccine. Results showed that the vaccine was 94% effective in preventing coronavirus. There are some common side effects of the Moderna vaccine possible.
Some other vaccines that have received approval for use in various countries include:
The Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine - The vaccine codenamed AZD1222 is developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca, United Kingdom. It is sold under the brand names Covishield and Vaxzevria and is 76.0% effective. This vaccine has a good safety profile, and with this vaccine, side effects such as injection-site pain, nausea and headaches are usually resolved in a few days. The results of Phase 3 of the trial showed that it is 70% efficacy.
Convidecia - It is also known as AD5-nCOV is a multinational, developed by CanSino Biologics. The phase 3 trial involved 40,000 participants. Results show that the vaccine had a 65.7% efficacy in preventing moderate symptoms of COVID-19, and 91% efficacy in preventing severe disease.
Corona Vac, developed by Sinovac - According to the latest results released by the researchers, a coronavirus vaccine developed by Synovac of China is 50.4% effective in clinical trials. The Sinovac trials have provided different results across various countries. However, the final results of Phase 3 were announced on 3 March 2021 by Turkey, showing an 83.5% efficacy.
The Sputnik V vaccine - The Sputnik V vaccine was developed by Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russia, on 11 August 2020 as Gam-COVID-Vac. Gam-COVID-Vac was initially approved on the basis of Phase I-II results for distribution in Russia. The results of the vaccine indicate 91.6% efficacy without unusual side effects. By February 2021, the vaccine's over one billion doses were ordered for immediate delivery globally.
Covaxin Covid 19 Vaccine - Covaxin is India’s first indigenous Covid 19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech, India. In phase 3 of the trial, approx 25,800 people, including 2400 volunteers above age 60 and 4500 with comorbid conditions, were enrolled. Results suggest that there is an 81% interim efficacy in preventing COVID-19 only after the second dose. Many countries across the world accept this vaccine.
Janssen Covid 19 Vaccine - Janssen Covid 19 vaccine developed by Janssen Biotech Inc., US. This vaccine is approved for use in peoples 18 years and older. On 23 April 2021, the CDC and FDA prohibited a 10-day pause in the United States of Johnson & Johnson / Janssen vaccine, with reports of a rare and severe type of blood clotting, low blood platelet administration by vaccine administration. Available data suggest that the known and potential benefits of the vaccine outweigh its known and potential risks. A warning has been added to the vaccine's label, which identifies a total of 15 cases of thrombosis-thrombocytopenia syndrome after administration, all of which occurred between 18 and 59 years old women.
Novavax Covid 19 Vaccine - Novavax Covid 19 Vaccine is developed by Novavax, Inc., US. In phase 3 of the trial, over 15,000 participants between 18-84 years of age and 27% over the age of 65 were involved. Results show that the efficiency of a vaccine against emerging Covid-19 is also highly encouraging. Novavax Covid-19 vaccine exhibits 89.3% efficacy.
ZF2001 Covid 19 Vaccine - The trade name of the vaccine is RBD-Dimer, developed by Anhui Zhifei Longcom and the Institute of Microbiology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. This vaccine was initially approved for use in Uzbekistan and later China. The Result of Phase 2 showed the seroconversion rate of neutralizing antibodies between 92% and 97%.
What Are The Side Effects of Covid 19 Vaccine
Covid 19 vaccines are safe and protect you against developing grievous Covid 19 diseases and dying from coronavirus. You may experience some mild side effects after being vaccinated, which are signs that your body is building defences.
1. What are the effects of Covid Vaccine -
Like any vaccine, COVID-19 vaccines can cause side effects, most of which are mild or moderate and go away within a few days on their own. As shown in the results of clinical trials, more severe or long-lasting side effects are possible.
Following are the common side effects of vaccine:-
- Pain at the injection site
- Muscle pain
Possibilities of these side effects are different as per vaccine's varieties. Covid 19 vaccines are only protected against coronavirus so take it for a healthy and well life.
2. What Are the Less Common Side Effects of Covid 19 Vaccine -
Covid 19 vaccine is safe, although some people have experienced more severe short-term side effects after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. These side effects include an acute type of allergic reaction and immediate allergic reactions, known as anaphylaxis.
After receiving a vaccine, the immediate allergic reaction typically occur, and it can include symptoms:-
- Trouble breathing
- Tightening of the throat
- Feeling dizzy or faint
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea or vomiting
- Rapid heartbeat
- Low blood pressure (hypotension)
- Feeling of doom
So, after receiving a corona vaccine, you should monitor for at least 15 minutes afterwards to ensure no severe side effects in the body.
3. What Are the Long Term Side Effects of Covid 19 Vaccine
As COVID-19, vaccines have been administered since December 2020. Till now, there is no complaint or information about the long-term effects. Even though people have started receiving these vaccines, researchers will continue to study their safety and effectiveness in the future. These studies will also focus on how long immunity from vaccines lasts.
However, there are some possibilities that a person may be infected with SARS-CoV-2 immediately before or after vaccination. Because it usually takes a few weeks to make the body immune to the virus.
If you get side effects after being vaccinated, that means the vaccine is working and build your immune system. Covid 29 vaccines are safe, and getting vaccinated will protect you against covid 19.
COVID-19 is a major health challenge worldwide. Experts and officials are working to develop and control vaccines and implement other preventive measures.
The goal is to use a COVID-19 vaccine for all. While waiting for this to be available, follow all the guidance of public health officials and medical experts.